IntroductionEditThe E-flat major Sonata Hob. XVI: 49 were written by Haydn for the fortepiano. He was influenced by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, specifically for his “Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments.” His influenced are clear in the Haydn piano sonatas every time that he utilized trills or arpeggiated chords there is a clear inclination with C.P.E. Bach treatise.
AnalysisEditThe Sonata in D major (Hob. XVI: 19) is framed in the Galant Style, because of its simplicity, its homophonic texture. The first movement is very symmetrical: the first phrase has 8 measures. There is some dissonances but they always resolve to consonant chords, in the score all the dissonances have to be played loudly while the resolutions have sound softly, this is a typical example of the classical style: the contrasts, ex: measures 57-58. When there is the repetition bar lines it means that the second time the performed have to repeat the section with contrasts, for example if you had to play forte the first then when you repeat it has to be piano or vice versa. The movement ends piano which is an example of the humoresque sense of humor of Haydn. In the second movement the tempo is “Andante” the contrasts in this movement are led by articulations, for example the alternation between legato and staccato touch in the measures 29-32; the alternation between major and minor keys is another typical element of contrast in the classical period, ex: the section b starts in e minor (measure50) and there is a modulation to E major in measure 56. In the third movement is notable the virtuosic character led by the tempo, There is repetition bars in every section example: measure 25-32, this passage begins in a Forte dynamic indication it has to en in piano as way to create contrast.
ComparisonEditThe Sonata in g minor (Hob. XVI: 44) can be contrasted in style with the D major sonata because the first one is in Empfindsamer style (sensitive style) and the second one in Galant style. How we now that the g minor Sonata is in Empfindsamer style? The “style of the sensibility” is marked by the expressivity in the music, melancholic character, long lyric/vocal phrases preferably in minor keys, continues changes of mood, rests, dissonant harmonies. The first movement of this sonata can be contrasted with the D major in terms of tonality, the first movement changes between major and minor keys constantly while the D major is steadier. From the beginning it starts in g minor but in the measure 12 it modulates to the F major key. The most important resource that Haydn uses here is the increment of the voices as a way to increment the dynamic, ex: measures 46-51 with the crescendo marked in the score.
I picked the D major Haydn Sonata because it is really interesting to see how Haydn tried to follow J. P. E. Bach in terms of ornamentation and articulation, and also because its didactical functionality, he wrote his early sonatas specifically for his students.
Berry, Sylvia. “Review of Joseph Haydn-Sonatas for the Harpsichord by Byron Shenjman.” Early Music America. Vol. 13, No. 1 (2007):18
“F.J. Haydn: Sonata in G minor Hob. XVI n.44.” YouTube video; 14:23. Uploaded by “poom prommachart,”Uploaded, Oct 25, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=De1v1ZsXxOU
“Haydn –R. Nuchbinder-Sonata no30 in D major, Hob XVI 19.” YouTube video; 16:56. Uploaded by “PhilippeLoTheEternal,” Uploaded, Dec 18, 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldduAJHaaow
Somfai, Laszlo. “The Keyboard Sonatas of Joseph Haydn: Instruments and Performance Practice, Genres and Styles.” (Chicago: University Press: 1995)
Franz Joseph Haydn, Sonata in G minor. http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/c/cb/IMSLP00160-Haydn_-_Piano_Sonata_No_44_in_g.pdf
Franz Joseph Haydn, Sonata in D major. http://petrucci.mus.auth.gr/imglnks/usimg/4/4c/IMSLP113692-PMLP01717-Haydn-Piano_Sonate_No50-XVI37-Kohler.pdf
Link to picture of Haydn’s Sonata in D major: http://www.sheetmusicplus.com/title/sonata-in-d-major-hob-xvi-37-sheet-music/3668484
Links to the Haydn’s Sonata in g minor’s picture: http://imslp.org/wiki/Keyboard_Sonata_in_G_minor,_Hob.XVI:44_%28Haydn,_Joseph%29